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Secondary or Pre-Appraised Sources

The strongest evidence is in the secondary or pre-appraised research.

The 6S model evidence pyramid

The pyramid is divided into levels with the strongest evidence at the top. Systems is not widely used. Begin with Summaries. If you cannot find the information in Summaries continue down the pyramid remembering that the strength of the evidence decreases as you go further down the pyramid.

DiCenso A, Bayley L, Haynes B. Accessing preappraised evidence: fine-tuning the 5S model into a 6S model, ACP J Club. 2009; Vol 151 Issue 3: p1


Synopses of Syntheses

  • ACP Journal Club (Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR, Ovid menu)
  • Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) (EBMR, Ovid menu)

Syntheses (Systematic Reviews)

  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBMR, Ovid menu)

Synopses of Single Studies

  • ACP Journal Club (EBMR, Ovid menu)